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Flora and Fauna


Despite its small area, Georgia has one of the most varied topographies of the former Soviet republics. Georgia lies mostly in the Caucasus Mountains, and its northern boundary is partly defined by the Greater Caucasus range. The Lesser Caucasus range, which runs parallel to the Turkish and Armenian borders, and the Surami and Imereti ranges, which connect the Greater Caucasus and the Lesser Caucasus, create natural barriers that are partly responsible for cultural and linguistic differences among regions. Because of their elevation and a poorly developed transportation infrastructure, many mountain villages are virtually isolated from the outside world during the winter. Earthquakes and landslides in mountainous areas present a significant threat to life and property. Among the most recent natural disasters were massive rock- and mudslides in Ajaria in 1989 that displaced thousands in southwestern Georgia, and two earthquakes in 1991 that destroyed several villages in north-central Georgia and South Ossetia.

Georgia from the satellite
Georgia from the satellite

Georgia has about 25,000 rivers, many of which power small hydroelectric stations. Drainage is into the Black Sea to the west and through Azerbaijan to the Caspian Sea to the east. The largest river is the Mtkvari (formerly known by its Azerbaijani name, Kura, which is still used in Azerbaijan), which flows 1,364 kilometers from northeast Turkey across the plains of eastern Georgia, through the capital, Tbilisi, and into the Caspian Sea. The Rioni River, the largest river in western Georgia, rises in the Greater Caucasus and empties into the Black Sea at the port of Poti. Soviet engineers turned the river lowlands along the Black Sea coast into prime subtropical agricultural land, embanked and straightened many stretches of river, and built an extensive system of canals. Deep mountain gorges form topographical belts within the Greater Caucasus.

Caucasus Mountains in Svaneti.
Caucasus Mountains in Svaneti.

Highest Mountains:
Shkhara - 5068 m (16,627 ft);
Janga - 5059 m (16,597 ft);
Mkinvartsveri (Kazbek) - 5047 m (16,558 ft);
Shota Rustaveli - 4860 m (15,944 ft);
Tetnuldi - 4858 m (15,938 ft);
Ushba - 4700 m (15,419 ft);
Ailama - 4547 m (14,917 ft);

Largest Rivers:
Mtkvari (Kura in Russian) - 1364 km (847.5 miles);
Tergi - 623 km (387.1 miles);
Chorokhi - 438 km (272.1 miles);
Alazani - 351 km (218.1 miles);
Rioni - 327 km (203.1 miles);
Tori - 320 km (198.8 miles);
Enguri - 213 km (132.3 miles);

Largest Lakes:
Paravani - 37.5 sq.km (14.4 sq ml);
Kartsakhi - 26.3 sq.km (10.1 sq ml);
Paliastomi - 18.2 sq.km (7.0 sq ml);
Tabatskuri - 14.2 sq.km (5.4 sq ml);
Khanchali -13.3 sq.km (5.1 sq ml);
Jandari - 10.6 sq.km (4.0 sq ml);


Hidrologikal Network of Georgia
Hidrologikal Network of Georgia


Based on: Wikipedia - Geography of Georgia

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Page last update: 1 June, 2006